La Ecología Evolutiva del Desarrollo en México

Elena R. Álvarez-Buylla, Adriana Garay-Arroyo, Berenice García-Ponce de León, María de la Paz Sánchez, Emmanuel González-Ortega, José Dávila-Velderrain, Juan Carlos Martínez-García, Alma Piñeyro-Nelson

Resumen


La biología evolutiva se enfoca al estudio de los patrones de variación fenotípica heredables dentro de las poblaciones y su dinámica en tiempos
transgeneracionales. Históricamente, los modelos evolutivos a nivel de las poblaciones se han desarrollado bajo supuestos simples. Dos de ellos
particularmente importantes son: 1) el cambio genético es un indicador directo de la variación fenotípica y 2) existe aditividad de los impactos
genéticos sobre el fenotipo. Un modelo más certero de evolución biológica debería de considerar explícitamente el mapeo entre genotipo y fenotipo y viceversa, ya que los mecanismos que median el desarrollo de los organismos y su interacción con el ambiente son los que generan la variación fenotípica. Una perspectiva dinámica no lineal es imprescindible para entender cómo se genera la variación fenotípica dado un fondo genético particular. Dicho de otra manera, es necesario entender los mecanismos sistémicos del mapeo entre genotipo y fenotipo en un contexto ecológico y evolutivo. El campo que comprende este enfoque es el de la Ecología Evolutiva del Desarrollo (Eco-Evo-Devo), el cual tiene además un enfoque sistémico. En México este campo ha crecido de manera incipiente a través del análisis de los mecanismos de desarrollo con enfoques de biología de sistemas, principalmente. En este artículo resumimos avances de este campo de estudio en México y cuáles son los principales grupos de investigación en el país. También evaluamos los impactos biomédicos de tomar esta perspectiva.

Palabras clave


Eco-Evo-Devo; Arabidopsis; Epigenética; Modelos de redes complejas; Mecanismos del desarrollo

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2017.10.009

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Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, Año 3, No. 12, enero-marzo 2014, es una publicación trimestral editada por la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, a través del Instituto de Biología, Tercer Circuito Universitario s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Copilco, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, Tel. (55)56229164, http://www.revista.ib.unam.mx/index.php/bio/, falvarez@ib.unam.mx.Editor responsable: Dr. Fernando Álvarez Noguera. Reserva de Derechos al uso Exclusivo No. 04-2013-092709142100-203, ISSN: 2007-8706, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor, Responsable de la última actualización de este número, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Dr. Fernando Álvarez Noguera, Tercer Circuito Universitario s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Copilco, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, fecha de la última modificación: 25 de agosto de 2016.

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