Diversity and similarity of the parasites in Megalechis thoracata and Callichthys callichthys (Pisces: Callichthyidae) from Brazilian Amazon

Adriele Carolina Franco-Cardoso, Ligia Rigôr-Neves, Marcos Sidney Brito-Oliveira, Marcos Tavares-Dias


This study compared the structure and composition of the parasite communities in Callichthys callichthys and Megalechis thoracata of a tributary of the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. A total of 447 parasites was collected from 38 specimens of each host, and 44.7% and 36.8% of fish species respectively were found to be infected with 1 or more species of parasite. The similarity in parasite assemblages between hosts was high (61%) with both infected at similar levels by Genarchella genarchella, larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp. and plerocercoids of Proteocephalidae. However, the dominant parasites found in C. callichthys were metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum sp., which did not infect M. thoracata. In M. thoracata the dominant parasite was G. genarchella, and this host species was also infected by Gorytocephalus spectabilis which did not infect C. callichthys. The parasite communities were dominated by endoparasites, and species richness of parasites, Shannon diversity index and evenness were similar for both hosts. The results indicate that these fish species are intermediate hosts of the endohelminths found. Finally, the variation in the parasite community between sympatric hosts occurred probably due to the hosts’ distribution in the environment and the diet of each host species.

Palabras clave

Amazon; Diversity; Freshwater fish; Parasite ecology

Texto completo:



Alarcos, A. J., and Timi, J. T. (2012). Parasite communities in three sympatric flounder species (Pleuronectiformes: Paralichthyidae). Parasitology Research, 110, 2155-2166.

Alcântara, N. M. and Tavares-Dias, M. (2015). Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon River system (Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 24, 183-190.

Bittencourt, L. S., Pinheiro, D. A, Cardenas, M. Q., Fernandes, B. M. M., and Tavares-Dias, M. (2014). Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 23, 44–54.

Bush, A.O., Lafferty, K. D., Lotz, J. M. and Shostak, W. (1997). Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. Revisited. The Journal Parasitology, 83, 575-583.

Caspeta-Mandujano, J.M., and Mejía-Mojica, H. (2004). Seasonal dynamics of the occurrence and maturation of Rhabdochona canadensis in its definitive host, Notropis boucardi, of the Chalma River, State of Morelos, Mexico. Helminthologia, 41, 121–123.

Cohen, S. C., Justo, M. C., and Kohn, A. (2013). South American Monogenoidea Parasites of Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles. Rio de Janeiro: Oficina de livros.

Cunha, A. C.; Cunha, H. A.; Brasil-Júnior, A. C. P.; Daniel, L. A.; Schulz, H. E. Qualidade microbiológica da água em rios de áreas urbanas e periurbanas no baixo Rio Amazonas. O caso do Amapá. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiente, 9, 322-328, 2004.

Eiras, J. C., Takemoto, R. M., and Pavanelli, G. C. (2006). Métodos de estudo e técnicas laboratoriais em parasitologia de peixes. Maringá: Eduem.

Froese, R. and pauly, D. (2015). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (10/2015).

Guidelli, G. M., Isaac, A., Pavanelli, G. C., and Takemoto, R. M. (2003). Endoparasites infracommunities of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840) (Pisces, Pimelodidae) of the Baia River, upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil: specific composition and ecological aspects. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 63, 261-268.

Guidelli, G., Tavechio, W. L. G., Takemoto, R. M., and Pavanelli, G. C. (2006). Fauna parasitária de Leporinus lacustris e Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences, 28, 281-290.

Hammer, R., Harper, D. A. T., and Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4, 1-9.

Hahn, N. S., R. Fugi, and J. F. Andrian. 2004. Trophic ecology of the fish assemblages. In: Thomaz, S. M., Agostinho, A. A., and Hahn, N. S. The upper Paraná River and its floodplain: physical aspects, ecology and conservation (pp. 247-269). Leiden, Netherland: Backuys Publisher.

Hoshino, M. D. F. G., Hoshino, E. M., and Tavares-Dias, M. 2014. First study on parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae), a host from the eastern Amazon region. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 23, 343-347.

Le-Cren, E. D. (1951). The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonadal weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology, 20, 201-219.

Lefebvre, F., and Poulin, R. (2005). Progenesis in digenean trematodes: a taxonomic and synthetic overview of species reproducing in their second intermediate hosts. Parasitology, 130, 587-605.

Lima, L. B., Bellay, S., Giacomini, H. C., Issac, A. and Lima-Junior, D. P. (2016). Influence of host diet and phylogeny on parasite sharing by fish in a diverse tropical floodplain. Parasitology, 143, 343-349.

Ludwig, J. A., and Reynolds, J. F. (1988). Statistical ecology: a primer on methods and computing. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Magurran, A. E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

Martorelli, S. R. (1989). Estudios parasitologicos en biotopos lenticos de la Republica Argentina. V. Dessarollo del ciclo biologico monoxeno de la metacercaria progenetica de Gernachella genarchella Travassos 1928 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasita de Littoridina parchappei (Mollusca: Hidrobiidae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Sección Zoologia, 14, 109-117.

Morais, A. M., and Malta, J. C. O. (2014). Chemical analysis trough “energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)” of Digenea metacercariae found infesting specimens of Hoplosternum litoralle (Hancock, 1828) (Siluriformes: Callichthydae), captured in Manaus polluted igarapes. Neotropical Helminthology, 8, 217-225.

Moravec, F. (2007). First experimental observations on the development of Rhabdochona denudata (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in the intermediate host. Folia Parasitologica, 54, 236–238, 2007.

Muñoz, G., Grutter, A. S., and Cribb, T. H. (2006). Endoparasite communities of five fish species (Labridae: Cheilininae) from Lizard Island: how important is the ecology and phylogeny of the hosts? Parasitology, 132, 363-374.

Novakov, N., Bjelic-Cabrilo, O., Cirkovic, M., Jubojevic, D., Lujic, J., Davidov, I., Jovanovic. M. (2013). Eustrongylidosis of European catfish (Siluris glanis). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19 (1), 72–76.

Pantoja, V. M. F.; Silva, L.V. F.; Tavares-Dias, M. (2016). Are similar the parasite communities structure of Trachelyopterus coriaceus and Trachelyopterus galeatus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) in the Amazon basin? Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 25(1), 46-53.

Pinheiro, D. A., Tavares-Dias, M., Dias, M. K. R., Santos, E. F., and Marinho, R. G. B. (2013). Primeiro registro da ocorrência de protozoários em tamoatá Hoplosternum littorale no Brasil. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 39, 169-177.

Poulin, R., and Fitzgerald, G. J. (1987). The potential of parasitism in the structuring of a salt marsh stickleback community. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 2793-2798.

Reis, R. E. (1998). Anatomy and phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical callichthyid catfishes (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 124, 105–168.

Resende, E. K., Pereira, R. A. C., Almeida, V. L. L., and Silva, A. G. (2000). Peixes insetívoros e zooplanctófagos da planície inundável do Rio Miranda, pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Boletim de Pesquisa 17 (Embrapa Pantanal).

Ritossa, L., Flores, V., and Viozzi, G. (2013). Life-cycle stages of a Posthodiplostomum species (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from Patagonia, Argentina. The Journal of Parasitogy, l99, 777–780.

Rohde, K., Hayward, C., and Heap, M. (1995). Aspects of the ecology of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes. International Journal for Parasitology, 25, 945-970.

Rózsa, L., Reiczigel, J., and Majoros, G. (2000). Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts. The Journal of Parasitology, 86, 228-232.

Shimabukuro-Dias, C. K., Oliveira, C., Reis, R. E, and Foresti, F. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of the armored catfish family Callichthyidae (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32, 152–163.

Scholz, T., Vargas-Vazquez, J., and Salgado-Maldonado, G. (1995). Revision of Genarchella species (Digenea: Derogenidae) parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico and Central America. Journal of Natural History, 29, 1403-1417.

Scholz, T. (1999). Lifes cycles of species of Proteocephalus, parasites of fishes in the Palearctich region: a review. Journal of Helminthology, 73, 1–19.

Soylu, E. (2013). Metazoan parasites of perch Perca fluviatilis L. from Lake Sığırcı, Ipsala, Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 45, 47–52.

Tavares, L. E. R., and Luque JL. (2008). Similarity between metazoan parasite communities of two sympatric brackish fish species from Brazil. The Journal of Parasitology, 94, 985-989.

Tavares-Dias, M., Oliveira, M. S. B., Gonçalves, R. A. and Silva, L. M. A. (2014). Ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild Aequidens tetramerus, a Cichlidae from the Amazon. Acta Parasitologica, 59,158-164.

Thomaz, D.O, Costa-Neto, S. V., and Tostes, L. C. L. (2003). Inventario florístico das ressacas das bacias do Igarapé da Fortaleza e do Rio Curiau. In: Takiyama, L. R. and Silva, A.Q. Diagnóstico das ressacas do Estado do Amapá: bacias do Igarapé da Fortaleza e Rio Curiaú, Macapá-AP. (pp. 1-22). Macapá: CPAQ/IEPA e DGEO/ SEMA.

Zar, J. H. (2010). Biostatistical analysis. 5th. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2018.2.1839

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

     Ed. en Jefe: Fernando Álvarez Noguera
     Tel: (55)5622-9164
     ISSN-versión electrónica: 2007-8706
     FACTOR DE IMPACTO 2019 (publicado en 2020): 0.585
     FI a 5 años: 0.971
     CiteScore (Scopus, 2020): 1.4
     Licencia Creative Commons 
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad por IB-UNAM se distribuye bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.


Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, Año 3, No. 12, enero-marzo 2014, es una publicación trimestral editada por la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, a través del Instituto de Biología, Tercer Circuito Universitario s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Copilco, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, Tel. (55)56229164, http://www.revista.ib.unam.mx/index.php/bio/, falvarez@ib.unam.mx.Editor responsable: Dr. Fernando Álvarez Noguera. Reserva de Derechos al uso Exclusivo No. 04-2013-092709142100-203, ISSN: 2007-8706, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor, Responsable de la última actualización de este número, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Dr. Fernando Álvarez Noguera, Tercer Circuito Universitario s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Copilco, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, fecha de la última modificación: 25 de agosto de 2016.

Las opiniones expresadas por los autores, no necesariamente reflejan la postura del editor de la publicación. Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de los textos aquí publicados siempre y cuando se cite la fuente completa y la dirección electrónica de la publicación.